Planting seedlings and further care for tomatoes
What you need to do to get high yields of tomatoes even in harsh climates. Part 2
Read the previous part: Growing tomatoes: preparing greenhouses, soil and seedlings
Planting tomato seedlings at the earliest possible date
As a rule, in the conditions of the Middle Urals, gardeners planted tomato seedlings in greenhouses no earlier than mid-June. It is very late, because we have a very short growing season. On heated biofuel, provided that additional shelters are installed and in the presence of strong seedlings, plants can be planted much earlier, around mid-May.
By this time, the first buds should already appear on the seedlings (the presence of fruits in the seedling stage is undesirable, since this often leads to the depletion of plants). Therefore, at the first signs of the formation of fruits on the seedlings, you need to urgently start planting it, and if the weather conditions and the degree of warming up in the greenhouse of the soil allow, then it is better to do this even earlier.
The technology of planting seedlings does not present any difficulties. The plants are watered abundantly, and then carefully removed from the pots and planted in prepared holes, laying them almost horizontally and slightly raising the tops - the first inflorescence should be above the soil level so that there is a chance to put plywood under the fruits that are later formed there. Such a horizontal planting is beneficial from two positions: on the one hand, it allows you to achieve the formation of a more powerful root system, and on the other hand, it makes more efficient use of the light space of greenhouses, the height of which is limited. After planting, the plants also need to be well watered.
When planting, I do not add anything to the wells, but on insufficiently fertile soils, this, of course, is necessary, since this culture requires very fertile light soils with a neutral reaction of the environment, containing organic matter in the form of humus. Indeed, on insufficiently fertile soils, a large crop of tomatoes cannot be obtained. A possible option for additional fertilization in the holes can be semi-rotten compost mixed with a complex mineral water (Kemira and others). It is even better to lay a sachet of Apion under each bush - this long-acting fertilizer will provide constant nutrition for the plants throughout the growing season, which will avoid tedious weekly feeding.
In principle, I do not adhere to the tomato planting schemes recommended by agronomists, since this is a very plastic crop that can grow without any schemes, however, provided the required level of lighting is provided. However, in standard greenhouses, it is most convenient to place the bushes on a ridge in two rows on one side of the aisle and in two rows on the other.
I want to draw your attention to one more subtle nuance: when planting seedlings, I place the root system and the trunk very close to the soil surface (so that I can simply sprinkle the roots). Of course, such a depth for tomatoes is completely unacceptable, but I plant it very early, when it is still very cold, and the soil, even with biofuel, has not yet warmed up very much. The top layer of the soil is already more or less warm, and deeper the roots are cold, so you can't put them there yet.
After about 10-14 days, cover the entire surface of the ridge with warm soil. We take it from the compost heap - put it in buckets and put it in them for warming up in the greenhouse. When the soil in them warms up, sprinkle the roots of tomatoes and the entire surface of the ridges with it. Naturally, this operation is laborious, but it is worth it, since the plants do not suffer from insufficiently warmed soil in the depths of the ridges, they quickly start growing and do not pay attention to weather surprises outside the walls of the greenhouse.
In our conditions, at the time of disembarkation of seedlings, daytime and nighttime temperatures are still too low, and we have frosts until June 17-18. Therefore, you need to immediately build additional shelters inside the greenhouse in the form of arcs covered with thick covering material. On warm sunny days, we temporarily fold the covering material from the arches, and carefully return it to its place at night. It is usually possible to clean our internal shelters only after June 20. And in other zones of risky farming, I think, about the same conditions and terms.
Further care of tomatoes - only for "five-plus"
If you forget about our harsh climate, then tomatoes in general are quite grateful culture. True, without taking into account its individual characteristics, of course, one cannot do.
First, what you need to know: all modern highly productive tomato hybrids are intensive hybrids, that is, they can give large yields, subject to the introduction of increased doses of fertilizers. This means that you need to ensure a regular supply of fertilizers to the plants. For this purpose, ordinary gardeners can follow the time-tested path: weekly root top dressing with complex fertilizers and foliar dressing with them, but in smaller doses. Another option is also possible: to establish a drip irrigation system with regular supply of weak solutions of complex fertilizers to it, although this is quite expensive. And the worst thing is that it is necessary to organize the supply of very clean water to such a system. If this is not done, then the normal water supply is quickly disrupted due to clogged nozzles, so this option is not suitable for everyone.
Another option is the use of long-lasting compound fertilizers, such as Apions, which provide a continuous supply of nutrients, which allows you to make the most of every day of a short growing season. Such fertilizers are quite expensive, but labor costs during their application are significantly reduced, which is important for many.
Second, which is important: the root system of tomatoes does not tolerate a lack of air. As a rule, there is not enough air due to soil compaction, which can occur both due to regular watering, and due to insufficiently breathable soil. As a result, the development of plants is delayed, and the yield decreases markedly. Therefore, the greenhouse soil must always allow sufficient air to flow to the roots.
How can this be ensured? It is very simple: on the one hand, initially to form a sufficiently structured soil by introducing loosening additives (sawdust, hay, crushed bark, etc.), and on the other hand, do not forget about mulching the soil in the greenhouse (foliage, leaf litter, straw or humus layer in 3-5 cm). As for loosening the soil, this operation is undesirable due to the superficial location of a significant part of the roots.
Third feature of tomatoes: it is theoretically accepted that these plants are relatively drought-resistant, for example, in comparison with the same pepper. Indeed, outwardly, they tolerate irregular watering and some lack of moisture quite firmly, but all this affects the volume and quality of the crop. In particular, insufficient moisture during the period of mass fruit setting leads to a decrease in yield and its quality, and sometimes to a significant loss due to shedding of flowers. In addition, irregular watering, especially in dry weather, causes the fruits to develop apical rot and crack. Of course, watering can only be done with warm water and only under the root, and not by sprinkling - watering with cold water causes stress in plants, and their development is inhibited, which again affects the harvest not in the best way. However, excessive waterlogging is also dangerous, as it provokes the development of diseases.
FourthRemember: thermophilic tomatoes can have big problems with pollination in harsh weather conditions. Therefore, it is better not to wait for the ovaries to fall, but to regularly spray the plants with fruit-forming stimulants ("Bud", etc.) - these preparations will provide almost complete pollination in any weather conditions.
FifthWhat you need to consider: whatever one may say, but our Ural climate, like the climate of other risky zones, tomatoes are clearly not to their taste - plants experience constant stress, which reduces their vitality, makes them more susceptible to all kinds of diseases. The only way to relieve such stress is to regularly sprinkle tomatoes with growth and development stimulants - there are a lot of them on the market today. True, when choosing this or that drug and spraying it, you need to very strictly adhere to the instructions, since spraying with a part of this kind of stimulants in high doses is fraught with results that are directly opposite to those expected.
Sixth a feature of modern hybrids: they bring a tangible harvest, which is quite difficult for plants to sustain. In order to avoid breaks in the places where the brushes are attached to the shoots, it is necessary to additionally tie the brushes - I usually tie them to thick, closely spaced shoots, vertically stretched ropes or to pegs (here it is necessary to act according to the circumstances). In addition, plywood or planks should be placed under the fruits located close to the ground to protect them from rot.
Memo on general agricultural technology
- Tomatoes are planted horizontally, covering the lower part of the stem with soil. After planting, the seedlings must be watered. If the soil is not fertile enough, half a bucket of compost or one handful of complex fertilizer ("Giant Vegetable", or "Breadwinner", or "Bogatyr"), 2 tablespoons each, is added to the holes when planting on each bush of tomatoes. superphosphate and one glass of ash, or one bag of Apion or a similar long-lasting fertilizer is placed.
- Approximately 10-14 days after planting, the plants are sprinkled with compost to a height of at least 3-4 cm, and then mulched with foliage.
- Three weeks after planting, the plants are tied up and begin to form.
- If Apions were not brought under the bushes, then the first three weeks the plants are not fed, provided that fertile soil has been formed in the greenhouse. Then carry out weekly root and foliar feeding. For root dressing, at first, ordinary complex fertilizers are used, from the beginning of July, the dose of potash fertilizers is increased and MagBor fertilizer is added to the usual complex fertilizers.
- From the moment the plants begin to bloom, once every two weeks they are sprayed with preparations for fruit formation (Gibbersib, or "Ovary", or "Bud").
- The bushes are watered only with warm water (+ 33 ... + 35 ° С).
Read the next part: Tomato formation, disease control →
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Photo by the author
When can you plant tomato seedlings: terms for different regions
With the onset of May for gardeners, the time begins to wait for a stable heat and an early retreat of night frosts. I would like to take out all the prepared seedlings faster. After all, it seems that if you plant it early, then the harvest will appear much faster. But this is not the case.
Tomato seedlings can be planted in open ground only when truly spring warm weather is established outside.
In this case, two basic conditions must be observed:
- Favorable temperature regime - the daytime air temperature should be kept at the level of +20 - +22 ° С, and the nighttime temperature should not be lower than +15 ° С. The ideal soil temperature near the roots is + 15 ° C (minimum + 10 ° C). You can find out if it has warmed up enough by burying the thermometer into the ground by 10-15 cm and evaluating its readings.
- The occurrence of frost is completely excluded. Tomatoes react negatively even to -1 ° С. At this temperature, they will not die, but their growth will noticeably stop, and the beginning of fruiting will be delayed by 10-15 days. To reduce the impact of recurrent frosts (from which no one is insured!), Gardeners cover the planted tomatoes with a special covering material (lutrasil, agrospan, etc.) or a film.
Therefore, in Ukraine and in the southern regions of Russia, summer residents can plant tomato seedlings in early May. In the central regions of the Russian Federation, this procedure is carried out from May 20 to June 1 inclusive. And in the northern regions (Ural, Siberia), the temperature returns to normal only at the end of May, therefore, seedlings are planted in the ground from June 1 to 15.
Further care of seedlings according to the lunar calendar
There are several ways to optimize the cultivation of tomatoes, including not only by choosing the right day, but also by observing all the rules for caring for plants.
When to dive
If we are talking about the first picking of seedlings, then it is recommended to carry out it on the 10th or 12th day. Monitor the quality of the soil and its characteristics, it must have the same qualities as the soil in which the plant previously arrived.
How is the picking of plants:
- seedlings are transferred into a deep container with a volume of at least 200 milliliters
- after 2 weeks, the tomatoes are re-picked, transplanted into liter pots.
The timing of the introduction of fertilizers
If shoots have appeared, then after 14 days the first fertilizing can be carried out, they are applied directly under the root of the plant, after irrigation procedures, preferably in the morning.
Various formulations can be used as top dressing or fertilizer:
- Fermented dung or mullein.
- Strong infusion of onion peels.
- Diluted chicken droppings.
- Crushed egg shells.
- As well as wood ash.
Fertilizer can be selected independently, for this, take into account the characteristics of the soil, as well as the characteristics of the variety.
Fertilizing is not prohibited on the full moon, as well as on the waning moon.
Normalization of bushes
This is the removal of inflorescences that have not borne fruit, the so-called stepchildren. It is carried out in a standard way.
If the inflorescence has turned into a fruit, but at the same time it does not develop, then it is also removed, provided that there is one large or medium-sized tomato on the bush. Don't forget to pinch the tops. It is better to carry out such procedures when the sign of Virgo enters the lunar phase.
If you are going to prune bushes, then it is better to do this during the waning period, when the moon passes through the sign of Aries or Leo.
There are no strict restrictions on watering - you can carry it out on any days, but if you take into account the peculiarities of the lunar calendar, then it is advisable to carry out such procedures on the following days:
- better on the waning moon
- when she is in the sign of Leo, Cancer, Pisces, and also Scorpio.
Reference! It is not advisable to carry out such procedures when the Moon is in Libra, Gemini and Aquarius.
Auspicious days for planting tomatoes according to the lunar calendar
On certain days, you can carry out both planting seedlings in the ground and transplanting tomatoes from a greenhouse into unprotected soil.
It is believed that it is necessary to plant at a certain time in order for the crop to be richer. In each month, the days suitable for planting are calculated using the calendar for 2021.
We carry out sowing seedlings, for this you will have to first soak the seeds and wait until they germinate.
So, let's discuss the favorable landing days in February:
- These are the 6th and 8th numbers.
- 11 and 12, as well as 13 until 13 o'clock in the afternoon.
- And also on the 15th and 16th of the month.
- You can also plant from 24 to 26.
You can plant tomatoes on the following days:
- it is better to land from the 10th to the 12th of the month
- for early ripe tomatoes, the 17th and 18th are suitable.
At this time, we sow tomato seedlings, and we carry out all the procedures in the greenhouse. Despite the fact that the ground warms up well, and you can plant it under a film.
If the planting is carried out directly into the ground, avoiding the period of stay of tomatoes on the windowsill, then they will begin to bear fruit earlier by 14 days.
Favorable days for planting:
- You can start working on the 7th and 8th, when the Moon is in Taurus.
- The number 11 and 12, as well as 20 and 21, are considered favorable.
Tomatoes - description, photos, characteristics, varieties, planting, cultivation and care
Today we will talk about tomatoes - bright representatives of fruit vegetable crops of the Solanovy family, their types and varieties, we will tell on sadzavodi.ru how to grow tomatoes in the open field, what kind of care is needed for developing plants.
How to care for tomatoes in the greenhouse after transplanting?
Many factors affect the survival rate of seedlings and the further growth of the tomato plant. Consider in detail the important points when caring for tomatoes.
During the period of adaptation of seedlings in new greenhouse conditions, the air temperature must be kept within the optimal range from +22 to +25 degrees, while the soil should already warm up above +15 degrees. Under such conditions, plants quickly give new roots and they begin to grow intensively.
Caring for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse includes the need to constantly monitor the temperature. Polycarbonate has high thermal insulation properties and good light transmission, therefore, in sunny weather, the air temperature during the daytime can rise sharply and reach critical for plants (above +35 degrees). Opening doors and transoms will reduce the temperature.
If there is no constant heating in the greenhouse, then in the event of a probable onset of frost, an additional heat source must be installed. In its capacity, various types of burners, heat guns or simply kerosene lamps can be used.
Before planting, it is advisable not to water the seedlings for 2-3 days. It will not be brittle and will receive additional hardening.
Immediately after planting tomatoes, it is necessary to water abundantly. This is one of the important rules for caring for tomatoes in a greenhouse. It is necessary to create contact of the roots with the soil. If this is not done, the plants can stick and then hurt for a long time, which ultimately will negatively affect the yield.
Further watering is carried out when the topsoil dries up. The moisture level is kept at 85% of the full moisture capacity. The easiest way to determine is by squeezing the soil into a fist from a layer below 10 cm.If after opening the palm, a non-scattering lump forms and it does not smear on the hands, then the moisture is optimal, when the lump scatters, watering is required.
On hot days in summer, daily watering is sometimes necessary, or even twice a day.
Excessive overflow of soil is detrimental to the roots, therefore, in cool weather, watering should be carried out no more than once every 3-4 days.
When planting seedlings, starting fertilizer must be poured onto the bottom of the hole. To do this, use 20 g of nitroammophoska containing N16P16K16. The roots should not come into contact with the granules due to the risk of burns, so they are mixed with the soil.
Top dressing is one of the most important jobs in the care of tomatoes in the greenhouse. They are carried out weekly, followed by watering. Tomatoes are very demanding on the content of nutrients in the soil, especially phosphorus. In the arsenal of a tomato vegetable grower, there should be monopotassium phosphate and potassium nitrate. These are two fast-acting fertilizers that will fill the macronutrient needs of the tomato plant. They take 20 g of each, dissolve in a ten-liter bucket of water and water at least 10 bushes.
Caring for tomatoes during the mass opening of buds includes operations that improve the formation of ovaries. Tomatoes have self-pollinating flowers. In order for the pollen to spill out and get on the pistil, it is enough to lightly shake the tomato plant. This operation is performed in the morning on a sunny day.
During airing, insects fly into the greenhouse, which help the flowers to pollinate. Bumblebees do it very well. You can put a hive with bumblebees in the greenhouse to increase fruit setting.
Observing all the described rules for caring for tomatoes in a greenhouse, you can get a bountiful harvest of delicious tomatoes.